Reading Terminology

 

 
  • alphabetic knowledge - Knowing the names and shapes of the letters of the alphabet
  • alphabetic principle- The understanding that written letters represent sounds, for example, the word big has three sounds and three letters
  • blending- Putting together individual sounds to make spoken words
  • comprehension-Comprehension is the reader’s ability to understand, engage with, and think about the text.
  • decodable books- Books that are made up of words that contain only the letter-sound relationships that the children are learning, along with a few words that are taught as sight words
  • decode- The ability to recognize and read words by translating the letters into speech sounds to determine the word's pronunciation and meaning
  • developmental spelling (invented spelling)-The use of letter-sound relationship information to attempt to write words
  • emergent literacy-The view that literacy learning begins at birth and is encouraged through participation with adults in meaningful reading and writing activities
  • environmental print- Print that is part of everyday life, such as signs, billboards, labels, and business logos
  • explicit instruction- Direct, structured, systematic teaching of a task
  • fluency- The ability to read text accurately and quickly with expression
  • graphic organizers- Diagrams that visually represent the organization and relationships of ideas in a text
  • guided reading instruction- a teaching approach designed to help individual readers build an effective system for processing a variety of increasingly challenging texts over time.
  • guided reading level- a good indication of students’ reading level for instructional purposes.  
  • independent reading level- a book that can be read independently by a student, might be one or two levels lower than the guided reading level.
  • informational text - Text that conveys information - this may include books, magazines, websites, directions, etc.
  • irregular words- Frequently used words that don't follow the letter-sound relationship rules that children are learning
  • leveled books- Books that have been assigned a particular level (usually a number or letter, such as Level 1 or Level B) intended to indicate how difficult the book is for children to read
  • literacy- Includes all the activities involved in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and appreciating both spoken and written language
  • onset-
  • phonemes- The smallest parts of spoken language that combine to form words - For example, the word hit is made up of three phonemes (/h/ /i/ /t/) and differs by one phoneme from the words pithiphot.
  • phonemic awareness- The ability to hear and identify the individual sounds in spoken words
  • phonics- The relationship between the sounds of spoken words and the individual letters or groups of letters that represent those sounds in written words
  • predictable books (pattern books)- Books that have repeated words or sentences, rhymes, or other patterns
  • print awareness- Knowing about print and books and how they are used
  • rime-
  • segmenting- Taking spoken words apart sound by sound
  • sight words- Sight words are words that good readers should instantly recognize without having to "figure them out”.  Sight words cannot be decoded and must be learned by sight.
  • syllable- A word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound (e-ventnews-pa-perpret-ty)
  • vocabulary- The words we must know in order to communicate effectively - Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening.  Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print.
  • word recognition- The ability to identify printed words and to translate them into their corresponding sounds quickly and accurately so as to figure out their meanings